Nationalist manifesto: Sanatana dharma to counter corruption and realization of One Nation
Methinks, echoing the central theme of Dr. Subramanian Swamy’s lectures all over the country over the last 12+ months, the central theme of the poll manifesto of nationalists, for the next Lok sabha elections should be:
Restoration of sanatana dharma and fighting against the evil of corruption which is negating the abhyudayam, welfare of the Indians, aam admi.
The inalienable principle which should govern the implementation of the manifesto is the realization of One Nation, moving away from the present intolerable situation of two nations of the rich and the poor, ‘between whom there is no intercourse and no sympathy…as if they were dwellers in different zones or inhabitants of different planets…and are not governed by the same laws.’ We should live by the dictum of BR Ambedkar echoed this in a more ephatic statement: “Every man who repeats the dogma of Mill that one country is no fit to rule another country must admit that one class is not fit to rule another class.” We should pay a tribute to Vivekananda who predicted that modern science and education would break down the barriers between nations and prepare the ground for the fulfillment of the age-old dream of one united world.
Isavasya Upanishad starts with this:
Isavasyam idam sarvam yat kim ca jagatyam jagat, tena tyaktena bhunjitha,ma gridhah kasyasvid dhanam (Isa 1) is the first mantra of the Isavasya Upanishad. This mantra says: Whatever moves in this world is enveloped by the Supreme Being. Enjoy it with renunciation; do not covet any man’s wealth.
Founded on this sanatana dharma is the enormous respect Indians have towards the people who have sacrificed and renunciated all greed and abhorred possession of wealth to fulfil selfish interests.
This founding principle of respecting people who have sacrificed their lives for a cause larger than themselves is the foundation for sanatana dharma setting forth ethical values in the performance of all human endeavour.
This foundation has to be re-emphasised to fight the evil of corruption which has eaten into the vitals of the polity of the nation.
Manusmṛti 1.86 emphasizes: dānam ekaṃ kalau yuge ‘giving alone in the kali yuga.’
astāṅga-yoga of Patañjali (2.29) emphasizes that ethical behavior is the foundation which leads to self-realization, ātmajñāna – realizing [ahaṃ brahma-asmi (Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad I.4.10) trans. ‘I am brahman, the supreme ātman’; yas tu sarvāṇi bhūtāny-ātmany-eva-anupaśyati sarvabhūteṣu ca-ātmānam (Īśā Upaniṣad 6) ‘who sees all beings in oneself and oneself in all beings’.]
Lok Sabha mid-term polls by March next, Subramanian Swamy says
PTI Oct 3, 2012, 05.31PM IST
COIMBATORE: There is all possibility of mid-term elections to the Lok Sabha by February-March next and the ruling Congress dispensation would lose badly, Janata Party national president Subramanian Swamy claimed on Wednesday.
Considering the present situation, there would be mid-term polls to the Lok Sabha in February or March next, he said while briefing reporters on the deliberations of the party’s Tamil Nadustate general council meeting, here.
Dealing with rampant corruption and tackling internal and external terrorism would be the major planks during the election campaign of the party, which has recently joined BJP-led NDA, he said.
Asked about the possibility of emergence of a Third Front, particularly by allies from UPA, Swamy said, it was not practical at this juncture.
To a question on the remarks of West Bengal chief minister Mamata Banerjee to bring a no-trust motion against UPA government and UPA ally DMK saying it would back any opposition-sponsored resolution in Parliament against allowing FDI in multi-brand retail, Swamy said, “This is the most hopeless government. It must go as early as possible.”
FDI in retail would seriously affect the livelihood of crores of small traders as they would not be able to compete with foreigners, he said.
However, Swamy said, he was not aware about the note prepared by NDA on FDI, as claimed by Union commerce minister Anand Sharma, since he was not part of the alliance at that time.
Swamy also said government owed an explanation on Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi’s allegation about details of expenditure incurred for Congress president Sonia Gandhi’s foreign travels.
Modi had yesterday alleged that according to a media report, Rs 1,880 crore were spent on travel and treatment of Gandhi. However, the Gujarat Chief Minister had offered to tender a public apology hours after making the allegation if his charge was found to be false.
Primary text links:
Kautilya’s Arthashastra (full 1915 Shamasastry text)
- Book I, “Concerning Discipline”
- Book II,”The Duties of Government Superintendents”
- Book III, “Concerning Law”
- Book IV, “The Removal of Thorns”
- Book V, “The Conduct of Courtiers”
- Book VI, “The Source of Sovereign States”
- Book VII, “The End of the Six-Fold Policy”
- Book VIII, “Concerning Vices and Calamities”
- Book IX, “The Work of an Invader”
- Book X, “Relating to War”
- Book XI, “The Conduct of Corporations”
- Book XII, “Concerning a Powerful Enemy”
- Book XIII, “Strategic Means to Capture a Fortress”
- Book XIV, “Secret Means”
- Book XV, “The Plan of a Treatise”
Book-VIII-Concerning-Vices-and-Calamities CHAPTER III. THE AGGREGATE OF THE TROUBLE OF MEN.
…Addiction to pleasure (káma) occasions contempt and loss of wealth, and throws the addicted person into the company of thieves, gamblers, hunters, singers, players on musical instruments, and other undesirable persons. Of these, enmity is more serious than contempt, for a despised person is caught hold of by his own people and by his enemies, whereas a hated person is destroyed. Troubles from an enemy are more serious than loss of wealth, for loss of wealth causes financial troubles, whereas troubles from an enemy are injurious to life. Suffering on account of vices is more serious than keeping company with undesirable persons, for the company of undesirable persons can be got rid of in a moment, whereas suffering from vices causes injury for a long time.
Book XI, “The Conduct of Corporations” CHAPTER I. CAUSES OF DISSENSION; AND SECRET PUNISHMENT.
THE acquisition of the help of corporations is better than the acquisition of an army, a friend, or profits. By means of conciliation and gifts, the conqueror should secure and enjoy the services of such corporations as are invincible to the enemy and are favourably disposed towards himself. But those who are opposed to him, he should put down by sowing the seeds of dissension among them and by secretly punishing them.
(King) he should live as the only monarch of all the corporations; the corporations also, under the protection of such a single monarch, should guard themselves against all kinds of treachery.
* The chief of corporations should endear himself to all the people by leading a virtuous life, by controlling his passions, and by pursuing that course of action which is liked by all those who are his followers.
Book XV, “The Plan of a Treatise” CHAPTER I. PARAGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS OF THIS TREATISE.
THE subsistence of mankind is termed artha, wealth; the earth which contains mankind is also termed artha, wealth; that science which treats of the means of acquiring and maintaining the earth is the Arthasástra, Science of Polity.
It contains thirty-two paragraphical divisions; the book (adhikarana), contents (vidhána), suggestion of similar facts (yoga), the meaning of a word (padártha), the purport of reason (hetvartha), mention of a fact in brief (uddesa), mention of a fact in detail (nirdesa), guidance (upadesa), quotation, (apadesa), application (atidesa) the place of reference (pradesa), simile (upamána), implication (arthápatti), doubt (samsaya), reference to similar procedure (presanga), contrariety (viparyaya), ellipsis (vakyasesha), acceptance (anumata), explanation (vyákhayána), derivation (nirvachana), illustration (nidarsana), exception (apavarga), the author’s own technical terms (svasanjá), prima facie view (púrva paksha), rejoinder (uttrapaksha), conclusion (ekánta), reference to a subsequent portion (anágatávekshana), reference to a previous portion (atikrantávekshana), command (niyoga), alternative (vikalpa), compounding together (samuchchaya), and determinable fact (úhya).
* In the light of this Sástra one cannot only set on foot righteous, economical, and aesthetical acts and maintain them, but also put down unrighteous, uneconomical and displeasing acts.
* This Sástra has been made by him who from intolerance (of misrule) quickly rescued the scriptures and the science of weapons and the earth which had passed to the Nanda king.
Rastram is etymologically explained as a firm, enlightened path for welfare of a community. The word is derived as a combination of two roots: ras’mi ‘the sun’ and sTha ‘firm, placed in’. This leads to an extraordinary evocation in the Vedas: rastram me datta (Give me that lighted path).
Taking rastram as one nation, the features of a common bond which unite the community include many facets ranging from cultural to geopolitical.
India is a nation with a civilizational story of triumphs and travails including the foreign occupation into British India and later balkanisation with the formation of the states of Pakistan and Bangladesh. These administrative formations of states cannot negate the cultural community of Indian Ocean States governed by the common bond of dharma-dhamma continuum. (Dharma defined as a sustaining, upholding universal, eternal ethical order leading to personal emancipation — nihs’reyas — and community welfare — abhyudayam).
Many savants of yester-years have yearned for that One nation. In recent times, we can recall the phrase ‘One nation’ mentioned by Disraeli. The phrase comes from Disraeli’s 1845 novel Sybil, in which he described the rich and poor as ‘two nations between whom there is no intercourse and no sympathy; who are ignorant of each other’s habits, thoughts and feelings, as if they were dwellers in different zones or inhabitants of different planets; who are formed by different breeding, are fed by different food, are ordered by different manners, and are not governed by the same laws’. BR Ambedkar echoed this in a more ephatic statement: “Every man who repeats the dogma of Mill that one country is no fit to rule another country must admit that one class is not fit to rule another class.” Vivekananda predicted that modern science and education would break down the barriers between nations and prepare the ground for the fulfillment of the age-old dream of one united world.
In the foreword to R.K. Mookerjee’s The Fundamental Unity of India, late Sir J. Ramsay MacDonald, ex-Prime Minister of Britain writes: “The Hindu regards India not only as a political unit naturally the subject of one sovereignty – whoever holds that sovereignty, whether British, Mohamedan, or Hindu – but as the outward embodiment, as the temple – nay, even as the goddess mother – of his spiritual culture… He made India the symbol of his culture; he filled it with this soul. In his consciousness, it was his greater self.” That spiritual culture, that soul, that atman is Dharma.
Let us strive towards a vision larger than ourselves, the vision of a patriotic, loyal community of people dedicated to the common cause. The common cause ‘courses through the veins of all and nobody feels left out.’ It is a vision of the Indian Ocean Community coming together to overcome the challenges we face.
Let us dedicate ourselves to achieve that common cause. We have a shared destiny and a common life we lead together.
Ōm Sam-gacchadhvam sam-vadadhvam, Sam vō
Dēvā bhāgam yathā pūrvē Sam-jānānā upāsatē.
Samānō mantrah samitih samānī, samānam manah
saha-cittamēṣām; Samānah mantram abhi-
mantrayē vah, samānēna vō haviṣā juhōmi.
Samānīva ākūtih samānā hṛdayāni vah;
Samānamastu vō manō yathā vah su-sahāsati.
O Lord, may we move forward in harmony, in harmony shall we speak, in harmony shall our minds apprehend; so the shining ones of ancient times with united minds achieved their noble goals. We pray, that united be your deliberations, united be your assembly, united be your minds in harmonious understanding; united be your resolutions through friendly deliberations, make your offerings in perfect harmony, and united be your wills, united be your hearts, united be your thoughts, so that you may all be perfectly united for the well being of all and everything concerned for the progress in this planet.
Let us remember Gautama, the Buddha’s exhortation remembering Dharma-Dhamma continuum:
Dhammapada Verse 5 Kalayakkhini Vatthu
Na hi verena verani
averena ca sammanti
esa dhammo sanantano.
(Trans.: Hatred is, indeed, never appeased by hatred in this world. It is appeased only by loving-kindness. This is an ancient law: esa dhammo sanantano, this is sanatana dharma.)
In the name of Dharma-Dhamma, let us resolve to work together for abhyudayam, welfare of the community.
Let us bring India to the eminent position she held before the colonial era.
Facets of sanatana dharma to combat greed which is the root cause of corruption
śreṇi dharma as social ethic, social insurance and social capital thus
- supplies the missing element – of dāna,‘giving, liberality’– in the economic progress imperative,
- dramatically mitigates the deleterious effect of greed resulting in misappropriation of wealth created by economic progress,
- obviates the need for state-sponsored regulation or interventions, and
- results in a socially responsible corporate form as an economic engine.
- Yes, we are suggesting the reform and amendment of company law by incorporation of a śreṇi dharma clause in the articles of association. This clause should specify a percentage, say 5 to 10 per cent of the turnover of a corporation to be accumulated into and spent as śreṇi dharma fund for social causes, beyond the core business of the corporation. By making the operations of the fund auditable and subject to public scrutiny through financial sentinels such as regulators of the marketplace, a legally binding process can be achieved, by adding the spiritual value of ethical responsibility to the financial balance sheet of a corporation. The Chairperson and Board of Directors of such a corporation incorporating śreṇi dharma will be responsible to make disclosures in their annual reports to shareholders the contributions made into and outgo from the śreṇi dharma fund. The fault-line of lobha, ‘greed’, will be gradually jumped with such mandated provisions of incorporation, periodical reporting to share-holders and voluntary enforcement of the provisions by the officers of a modern śreṇi.
- We are suggesting that modern high-growth sectors like the Information Technology (IT) sector should include a clause of incorporation which can be called śreṇi dharma .Such an incorporation will help incorporate in a fast-growing technology sector of the economy of the world the ethic of social responsibility. There is evidence that many SSI clusters continue to be governed by written trust deeds (in Sanskrit, śreṇi dharma or in Tamil, aṟakkaṭṭaḷai – the dharma statute). This form of incorporation can be extended to large scale or global level industry or enterprise. One reason why this salutary form has not been introduced is the excessive reliance on Roman jurisprudence with emphasis on individual rights without a corresponding emphasis on social responsibility and duty of a corporate entity. The deficiency can be remedied by calling for a mandatory incorporation clause stipulating a pre-determined percentage of the turnover of an incorporated corporation to be set aside as social security and as social capital to be exclusively used for social welfare.
- In Maslow’s (1943) hierarchy or pyramid of human physiological needs which are at the bottom to the need of self-actualization which is at the pinnacle, the expectation is that every member of a corporation will be motivated and resolve to reach the pinnacle, up the ladder. This resolution has to be a vow, a dedication in the process of understanding the essential unity of the ātman (spark from the divine) with theparamātman (the supreme divine).
- In the tradition of Hindu civilization, this unity is dharma –dhamma, the eternal, ethical ordering principle.
- A modern śreṇi can evolve into a dharma corporation, exemplifying economic justice in a moral order.
- śreṇi dharma is a voluntary and spontaneous fulfillment of social ethic of a corporation in a polity. śreṇi dharma , a unique contribution to economic thought and practice, should reform corporations world-wide – to jump the fault-lines of greed, corruption and excesses of state or corporate power while adding value to materialistic ethos, upgrading the joy of material living to ecstasy of being and sharing as bliss.
- The acceptance of śreṇi dharma in modern India, as one of the youngest nations on the globe (accounting for 70% of the population as less than 35 years of age), will result in a paradigm shift introducing social ethic in global economic thought and practice. Acceptance may involve reforms in Companies Act or Memoranda of Association or Incorporation of Companies, with specific, non-fuzzy ethical rules such as an agreement to set apart 5 to 10% of the income of a corporation for social causes. The enforcement of the rules has to be voluntary and by the corporation itself. The corporate tribunals will judge the deviant behavior from the agreed ethical norms and social responsibilities including specifications of punishment for disregard of the rules and procedures for legal redress by appeal against the verdict, say, of a śreṇi tribunal.
- A rich civilizational tradition that India represents – in the comity of nations — is destined to contribute to economic justice in a sustainable, global, moral order.
- As India, free from colonial domination, emerges as a global economic power, it is time to recognize and reinstate śreṇi dharma, or social capital, as the missing element of economics to create, nurture and enhance the wealth of nations, while making śreṇi dharma an integral part of modern economic paradigm.
- With dharma, yes, we can. We can be the agents of change of the world economy, reaching out to the unreached, endeavoring to achieve the ethical imperative: sarve bhavantu sukhinah (let all beings be happy) (ādi śankarācārya).
Hrishikesh Vinod, who edited a Handbook of Hindu Economic Thought (which includes an article on Srenidharma by S. Kalyanaraman) referred to an interesting article of Max H. Bazerman and Ann E. Tenbrunsel (2011) which discussed lapses in behavioral ethics – among regulators, prosecutors, auditors, journalists — caused, sometimes, by their self-interest to protect reputation of corporate clients. Bazerman and Tenbrunsel make a fine distinction between such willful actions or ignorance. Maybe it is human nature to condone such lapses, but the organizational structure should provide for honest discussions within a corporation about ethical transgressions which result in excessive greed. The structure and function of Hindu corporate form has shown how a commitment can be achieved by corporate clients and regulators alike by setting up a standard percentage of śreṇi dharma. This overarching corporate ethic with built-in behavioral ethic expected from all corporate actors and incorporation of this mandatory social welfare contribution in the memorandum of incorporation will help mitigate the effects of excessive greed.
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/98845220/Hindu-social-corporate-form-and-sreni-dharma-(October-2011)Hindu social corporate form and sreni dharma (October 2011)
For nearly 3000 years since 800 BCE and perhaps earlier, śreṇi has been the corporate form of varṇa system of social organization — varṇāśrama dharma — in Hindu industrial, arts, crafts, business and civic entities. This śreṇi corporate form pre-dates the earliest proto-Roman corporations; śreṇi was widespread in Ancient India in business, social and civic activities; this corporate form continues to exist even today in Independent India, despite the adoption of a written Constitution governed by principles of Roman jurisprudence and laissez-faire economic principles governing the wealth of the nation. Indian ethical pluralism is called dharma ; śreṇi dharma is dharma applicable to a corporation. The laws governing śreṇi are called śreṇi dharma , emphasizing social responsibility of corporations. śreṇi dharma provides the mechanism to embed ‘social ethic’ enhancing the corporate model of capitalism or socialism either of which operates within the framework of ‘rational, materialistic economic ethos’. Hindu society attaches importance to ethical values, ātman (innate cosmic energy) as also to the creation of wealth of a nation. An ascetic is as respected in Hindu society as a just ruler of a state. This remarkable integration of materialistic ethos with the social ethic is unique in the story of human civilizations. śreṇi dharma as social capital can supply the missing element of trusteeship. This śreṇi dharma constitutes an impressive contribution of Hindu civilization to economic thought, adding spiritual value to materialistic ethos.
The monograph is presented in three sections:
1. Evolution of śreṇi dharma as social corporate statute over 3 millennia;
2. Economics of śreṇi as ethical cure for lobha, ‘greed’;
3. Incorporation of Hindu śreṇi in economic thought and practice.